The distance between the needles on a tufting machine.
The gauge is expressed in fractions of an inch, and refers to the number of needles which are positioned across the width of the tufting machine.
The distance between the stitches made by the needles (the distance which the backing material travels before the needle inserts the next tuft).
Pitch is expressed in terms of the number of tufts per inch. Density refers to the closeness of the pile yarns, and is an indication of both gauge and pitch. Generally, the higher the density, the better the quality of the carpet.
The weight, expressed in the number of ounces per yard of fiber extending above the primary backing.
These factors (gauge, pitch, density and face weight) all have direct effects upon each of the others.
For instance, if the density increases with the pile height remaining the same, the face weight will increase.
Or if the pile height increases with the density remaining the same, the face weight will increase.
The rest of this information will be based on Cut-Pile designs (59% of the current market), Loop-Pile designs (28% of the market), and Cut and Loop-Pile combination designs (13% of the market).
A saxony configuration will generally have a pile height of about three quarters of an inch.
The main distinction of a saxony will be in the fact that the pile is made up of twisted, heat-set yarns with sufficient density to cause them to stand upright to foot traffic.
Ninety percent of the expensive carpets made today are of the saxony pile.